Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Kautilyas Arthasastra: Military Aspects

Kautilyas Arthasastra: Military Aspects CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1. Army has been regarded from time immemorial as one of the essential instruments for the maintenance of a state. Kings, not only in India but throughout the ancient world, maintained well organised and well equipped armies both for the defence and expansion of their kingdoms. History is abounds in instances that whenever any ruler or state neglected the proper maintenance of their armies, unpleasant results in the form of loss of sovereignty or territory have occurred. The study of the organisation and administration of the army of a particular country in a particular period shall always give clues of its basic fabric. The topic under study deals with the role of Kautilyas Arthasastra in organising and administrating large armies and its relevance in todays world armies. 2. Kautilyas Arthasastra had never been forgotten in India and is often mentioned in later literature, sometimes eulogistically and sometimes derisively. But the text itself was not available in modern times until, dramatically, a full text on palm leaf in the grantha script , along with a fragment of an old commentary by Bhattasvamin, came into the hands of Dr R Shamasastry of Mysore in 1904 who was then the Librarian of the Mysore Government Oriental Library. He published not only the text (1909) and an English translation (1915) but also an index Verborum in three volumes listing every word in the text. Subsequently another original manuscript and some fragments, in a variety of scripts, were discovered as well as old commentaries of the text. An another author Dr RP Kangle of the University of Bombay devoted many years of painstaking edition and comparing the various texts and translations. His monumental three volume edition of the Arthashastra was first published between 1960 a nd 1965 with detailed note.[1] 3. Kautilyas Arthasastra is a treatise on artha and sastra. [3]. Artha is an all- embracing word with a variety of meanings in 1.7.6-7 , it is used in the sense of material well being; in 15.1.1 livelihood; in 1.4.3, economically productive activity, particularly in agriculture, cattle rearing and trade ; and, in general, wealth as in the wealth of nations. Arthashastra is thus the science of politics as it is used in 1.1.1 or 1.4.3 .It is the art of governance in its widest sense. The subjects covered include administration; law, order and justice; taxation, revenue and expenditure; foreign policy; defence and war. 4. Kautilyas Arthasastra contains fifteen adhikaranas or books. Of these the first five deal with tantra or the internal administration of the state. The next eight deals with avapa or its relation with the neighbouring states and the last two are miscellaneous in character. The eighth adhikarna or book is concerned with vyasanas, that is, the calamities ,shortcomings or weakness affecting the various prakritis. It is necessary to overcome the shortcomings before any aggressive activity can be undertaken. The ninth adhikarna deals with preparation for war and describe the kinds of troops that should be mobilised for an expedition, the proper seasons for starting an expedition, the precautions to be taken and the dangers to be guarded against before starting and so on . The tenth book deals with fighting, and describes the camping of the army, its march, various modes of fighting, types of battle arrays and other topics.[4]Thus this study shall primarily concentrate on book eight, nin e and ten in particular and other books in general. 5. The Legend K autilya : This mastermind, who could write a definitive treatise on economics and government at a time when large parts of the world was steeped in intellectual darkness? All sources of Indian tradition – Brahmanical , Buddist and jain-agree that Kautilya (also refer to as Vishnugupta in a stanza included at the end of the work) destroyed the Nanda dynasty and installed Chandra Gupta Maurya in the throne of Magadha. The name Kautilya denotes that he is of the Kutila gotra ; Chanakya shows him to be the son of Chanaka and Vishnugupta was his personal name[6] Kautilya then retired from active life and reflected on all that he had learnt during the process of overthrowing Dhana-Nanda. Since he found the earlier works on statecraft unsatisfactory in many respects, he composed his own definitive work presenting his ideas concerning the ways in which a ruler should gain power and maintain his authority. He was way ahead of his times in his thinking and covered every conceivable aspect on th e art of politics and warfare, which could be imagined at the time he lived. For Kautilya, military strategy was an integral part of the science of polity and he made no distinction between military techniques and statecraft. Kautilyas Arthashastra is a practical work which could have been written only by one who had implemented the tactics which he preached. How to form alliances, how to organise and administer them, how to attack a powerful king, how to deal with revolts in rear, what tricks to play on gullible people- there is plenty of evidence in the text to indicate that the author was giving real life answers to every conceivable hypothetical situation. 6. Statecraft and battle craft have changed over the centuries due to the fast changing technology and increasing requirements of human beings. Kautilya a mastermind contributed immensely to the development of the same, his extraordinary arrangement of battle groups in war and administering them during peace keeping all extraneous factors in mind still remains a masterpiece for century armies. CHAPTER II: METHODOLOGY Statement of Problem 7. To study the military aspects as enunciated by Kautilya in Arthashastra with a specific reference to organisation and administration and analyse its relevance for todays armies. Justification of the Study 8. The Legend Kautilya in his renowned work ARTHASHASTRA has dealt with various contemporary subjects which formed the basis of Chandragupta Mauryas rule and victories, in fact there is a general view that Kautilyas Arthashastra deals only with matters of foreign policy and economy. It is seldom realised that a great portion of this book does in fact, deal extensively with matters of military, he indeed consolidated all the prevailing grand strategy and tactics of those times and gave his expert opinion on the subjects, which ultimately led to victories of Chandragupta Maurya , who never lost a single campaign. It thus emerges that the brilliance of Kautilya was not only in diplomacy but also in warfare, but the fact that strikes out is that he was able to lay down methods to organise and manage the armed forces in a vast empire. The concepts of military administration and organisation in war and peace were inadvertently covered and spread out in all the adhikaranas, thus leading for topic of research for bringing forth, integrating and analysing those sublime aspects of organisation and administration which formed the bed rock of administering and organising large armies as of Mauryan empire, and at the same time analyse its relevance for 20th century armies. Scope 9. This study concentrates on the relevance of Kautilyas teachings with regard to military aspects in general and organisational and administrational aspects in detail including the aspects of tactics, strategy. The study aims to focus on aspects, which are still relevant for the better management of a large army like ours. 10. Methods of Data Collection. The information has been gathered from books, journals and the internet. The bibliography of sources is appended at the end of the text. Chapterisation 11. The subject under study shall be covered under following chapters: CHAPTER III : ORGANISATION OF ARMY 12. Chandragupta maintained a large standing army , though he acquired a big army from his Nanda predecessors, he made impressive accretions to its strength, so that it stood at six lakh infantry,30000 horses,9000 elephants and 8000 chariots . An efficient war office supervised this powerful army. Its thirty members were divided into five member boards . The six boards were : (a) Admirality. (b) Transport. (c) Commissariat and Army Service Infantry. (d) Cavalry. (e) Chariots. (f) Elephants. 13. Kautilya had divided the army into four arms i.e Patti or Padati(Infantry), Asva(Cavalry), Ratha(Chariots) and Hast (Elephants) and hence it was named as Chaturangabala or the four limbed army headed by their respective Adyakshas or Superintendents[7]. They had Following roles to play: (a) War Elephants. The king relied mainly on elephants for achieving victory in battles. They were the premium arm of the army and relied on their strength and shock effect to route the enemy from the battle field. They were required to destroy all arms of the service of the enemy and to break his battle formations. Kautilya has laid much emphasis on the use of elephants as a battle winning factor with following functions: (i) Marching in front, making new roads. (ii) Protecting the flanks. (iii) Helping to cross water and climb and descend from mountains. (iv) Breaking up enemys unbroken ranks, trampling enemys army. (v) Causing terror, capturing battle positions. (vi) Destroying ramparts, gates, and towers. (b) The Cavalry. The cavalry being the most mobile arm in the army was used to influence the battle. It was tasked for the following. (i) Reconnoitring battle grounds, camping sites, forests. (ii) Securing level grounds, water supply sources. (iii) Destroying enemies and protecting own supplies and reinforcements. (iv) Extending the range of raids. (v) Assault the enemys battle formation. (vi) Attack the enemy from the rear. (vii) Cut off the enemys line of supply. (viii) Isolate the enemys strong point. (ix) Feign retreat so as to persuade the en to pursue, once the enemy lost its cohesion the cavalry was supposed to turn around and rout him. (x) Restoration of sit by plugging gaps in own def made by enemys assault. (xi) Making the initial attack, penetrating or breaking through (xii) Pursue the defeated en. (xiii) Rallying the troops.[8] (c) Chariots. The war chariots had lost their effectiveness particularly against well trained cavalry, Maurian army retained war chariots as an independent arm, and they were restricted to a single offensive role of launching a charge against infantry and a near static defensive role. The arm lacked versatility and was too sensitive to terrain; it could produce result only under ideal conditions. According to Kautilya the chariots were to act as the mainstay of the formation in offensive and defensive roles. Their main function was to break up the opponents battle formation during offensive operations and repulse the enemy assault own formation and recapture lost ground by counter attack. (d) Infantry. There were primarily two types of infantry in Mauryan times, archers and spearmen and both were employed together. Archers performed the role of close support weapons as well as artillery and spearman carried out close combat. The spearman carried a large shield for protection. Chandragupta Maurya had turned the infantry into large standing force like the other three arms in the service. Infantry was the main fighting arm as it had the ability to fight over all types of terrain during all seasons and both by day and night. They were also used to protect captured grounds. Apart from the tasks mentioned above, the infantry was also supposed to give close support to the other arms ie the Elephants and the Chariots[9]. Organizational Structure 14. Kautilya had emphasised on hierarchal system for administration of army. The structure of the defence forces at the highest levels was as shown below: Commander -in- Chief Senapati(Chief of Defence) Chief Commanders of Chariot Corps Elephant Corps Cavalry Infantry Divisional Commanders 28. The chief of the four wings were subordinates to the chief of defense. Under the Chief Commanders, there were Divisional commanders. There were other officers such as Camp Superintendents who were given specific functions during the march to battle. The structure below the level of Divisional Commanders is specific to battles. 29. Every division of the formation had its own distinguishing trumpet sound, flags and banners, these were be used to signal the commands to the division-dividing themselves in to sections, joining together ,halting, advancing, turning and attacking. Battalion commanders and Divisional Commanders were responsible for moblisation and demoblisation. Secret agents, prostitutes, artists and artisans and retired military officers were kept to watch over the loyalty or otherwise of soldiers. Duties of Defence Officials 30. The Chief of Defence. (a) Qualifications. The chief of defence was suppose to be an expert in the use of all kinds of weapons used in warfare, riding elephants, horses and chariots and he was conversant with the relative strength of the four wings of the army and how to deploy them in battle. (b) Responsibilities. (i) Discipline in armed forces. (ii) Formations. (iii) Strategy and Tactics. (aa) Choose the best time to start an expedition. (ab) Choose the best terrain and the best season for fighting. (ac) Arrange the disposition of own forces (in the light of the enemies array). (ad) Plan the breakup of the enemies rank. (ae) Destroy enemies scattered troops. (af) Besiege and destroy enemy forts. 31. The Chief Commander Of Elephant Corps. Responsibilities were:- (a) Protection of elephants. (b) Construction and Maintenance of stables, stalls. (c) Training of elephants. (d) Assigning tasks to them. (e) Equipping them for war 32. The Chief Commanders Of Other Corps. Responsibilities Common to all were: (a) Knowledge of different type of equipment needed for his wing and use of such equipment in war. (b) Giving appropriate training. (c) Keeping account of equipment and animals under his charge. (d) Maintaining their equipment in good condition and repairing them when necessary. (e) Supervising the work of all employed by him. (f) Maintaining Discipline. (g) Reporting to the king the state of readiness of his troops[10]. 33. Other Commanders:- (a) Commander of the Kings Guard (Antarvamsika). This very high official, who ranked just below the seven highest paid officials including the senapati, must have been an army general, promoted after having held the appointment of director-general of his own arm. He was directly in line for promotion to senapati. He was in the pay scale of 24,000 pannas, in the same scale as the kings chamberlain and the chancellor. His importance was due to his responsibility for the security of the king and other members of the royal family in the palace. There must have been two other officers directly under his command who assisted him in ensuring the safety and security of the king and the royal family. One was the commander of the male guards who guarded the palace and the commander of the female archers who were detailed as immediate guards for the kings person and his personal quarters. (b) Commander of the Marches (Antapala) The antapala was responsible for guarding the borders of the State. For this purpose border posts were established; their primary purpose was a check on entry of enemy agents, undesirable elements, collection of customs duties and control over the entry of foreigners. Kautilya advocates the establishment of only four border posts, one in each direction of the compass. The siting of border posts on naturally defensible terrain is advocated so these must have served a defensive purpose as well. The antapala must have been a military officer, possibly with detachments from the army for the protection of his posts. (c) Durgapala. Durgapala (fort commanders) must have been army officers who also commanded detachments of regular troops which acted as garrisons, Kautilya mentions at least one fortified city or capital of the State which needed a durgapala. In the text, he refers to other forts. sited to take advantage of naturally defensible terrain. Larger States obviously had more than one fort which acted as bases for military operations and offered refuge in case of need. Types of Troops 33. Kautilya lists six types of troops which may become available to a king and examines the relative merits. The troops are maula (standing army), bhrta (local volunteers auxiliaries), serni (organized mercenaries), mitra ( trops of an ally), amrta ( enemy deserters) and atavi ( tribal levies). [11] (a) Maula Troops. These are the standing army of a state composed of soldiers who may have served the kings family for several generations. They are residents of the state and their interest coincides with those of the king. Their loyalty is assured, their weapons, equipments and the animals are the best the state can provide and their motivation and state of training is high. It is however only prudent that a proportion of this force be left behind for the security of the state. Kautilya recommends that around one- fourth of the maula troops be left in the capital. The maula troops should form a large part of an expeditionary force if : (i) The enemys troops are well trained. (ii) The campaign is expected to be difficult and hard. (iii) Other available troops are unreliable. (iv) Surplus maula troops are available after fully meeting the requirements of the capital and the rest of the state. (b) Bhrta troops. These are locally raised volunteers engaged for the duration of the campaign. They are either veterans or first time volunteers, usually trained in the handling of personals weapons. By profession they were either farmers or small traders who decided to take part in a campaign. As natives they have a stake in the security and welfare of the state. Such troops are reverted back to their professions after the end of the campaign. Their employment is recommended if:- (i) The enemy is weak and a large number of volunteers are available. (ii) The campaign is expected to be easy with little actual fighting. (iii) Success is more or less assured by the use of other means like covert operations or diplomatic efforts. (c) Sreni troops. These were trained, equipped and organised bodies of mercenaries under their own leaders who were available for hire to fight for a specified period of time. Their employment is recommended when:- (i) The opposing forces consist of primarily mercenaries. (ii) Much hard fighting is not anticipated. (iii) Sreni troops are available in adequate numbers for the campaign as well as for the defence of the capital. (d) Mitra troops. These are troops loaned for a campaign by an ally. Their utilisation is advocated if :- (i) Such troops are available in large numbers. (ii) A short campaign is anticipated because of good chances of early success of diplomatic moves underway. (iii) To oblige an ally. (iv) It is proposed to deal at first with the irregular part of enemys army, with his allies and his population centres, prior to attacking his main forces. (e) Amrita troops. These comprise enemy deserters and prisoners of war. They are not to be trusted but their employment is recommended if the eventual outcome of battle is of little consequence. (f) Atavi Levies. These were bands of tribesmen from the jungle who join the king under the command of their own chiefs with the primary purpose of collecting loot. These bands and amitra troops are unreliable and Kautilya considers both categories as dangerous as a snake. The above two categories of troops may be employed if:- (i) If they are available in large numbers to attack the enemys cities and irregular troops. (ii) It is proposed to delay the employment of the main force. (iii) It is Politic to get rid of them because their loyalty is suspect. Atavi troops may be employed as guides or to counter the use of similar to levies by the enemy both categorys of troops. 34. An army composed of units recruited from diverse sources and ready to fight for plunder may be an energetic army. On the other hand, an army whose soldiers belong to the same region, caste or profession is a mighty army; it will continue to fight even if its pay is in arrears and there is shortage of food. It shows bravery even in adverse conditions and its loyalty cannot be subverted. 35. A king should make efforts to obstruct the mobilisation of his opponent. His potential recruits should be intercepted and if necessary recruited into own army. Such personnel should however be discharged at the right time but well before the commencement of actual operations. Analysis 36. A close analysis of Organisational structure propounded by Kautilya in his Arthashastra is a sterling resemblance of what is followed in Indian Army with slight modifications. And it is clearly evident that the basic finer intricacies of the organisation remained the same though the gross structure underwent a change keeping latest technological development in mind. 37. Kautilya was way ahead in his times with clear vision and military thinking thus created an organisational structure catering for civil supremacy and ensured effective coordination between various components of the army which is still relevant at large. Chandra Gupta Maurya had a large standing army to manage similar to that of Indian Army and without a sound organisational structure it would have been virtually impossible to achieve victories which he had set for himself. 38. Kautilya had clearly categorised his army into various corps i.e Cavalry, Elephants, Infantry, Chariots etc with a clear division of roles in war, which is very much akin to our present system of various line directorates in our armies. He had also formed clear command and control structure with minimum scope for ambiguity. He had emphasised on Hierarchical system Command and control in armed forces some 2300 years ago which is still relevant in todays times. 39. The organisation of the Maruan army was little different than the one followed in our army today. Though a striking similarity is the presence of the adyakshas that can be related to our line directorate which are too led by a Lieutenant General. The rank structure is not restricted to any arm but common throughout the army. To elaborate, the pattika was a rank not belonging to a particular arm but he commanded elements of all the arms. This helped in better command and control. This also ensured of a clear demarcation of command structure which was irrespective of the arm, this practice is still followed. 40. When coming to appointment of heads of departments, Kautilya had ensured that they had requisite degree of qualifications for tenanting that kind of appointment and had a clear defined standards and roles for all of them, which is still largely relevant in our armies where selection processes ensure that the said officer had undergone necessary courses and has a requisite skills suitable for tenanting that kind of appointment. 41. Kautilya had imposed various degrees of confidence in terms of loyalty and integrity depending upon the community of troops, probably a relevant thing in those times, but in present times it is debatable whether it is relevant or not as for some community specific armies it may hold good but in Indian context, though the Indian army still have pure regiments based on caste system but the pedestal of loyalty and integrity attributed to each community is the same thus this particular thing is not relevant to Indian Army of present times. 42. Kautilya proposed to have a standing core army consisting of officials down to the Pattika and the regular soldiers to be recruited for the period of war. Specialists like elephant riders archers etc were also recommended to be retained as permanent soldiers. Though India has a large standing army which is used both for protection of its borders and for launching offensive. There is no differentiation in the kind of troops used for both the tasks as envisaged by Kautilya. Probably We can have smaller standing army which can be well trained and equipped with the best of the equipment. On the other hand we can have a larger component of Territorial Army that can be mobilised before an operation. The defensive formation can have Territorial Army and some of the regular troops where as the strike formations can be composed of regular troops. This will help in reducing the defence expenditure and the money saved could be better used for equipping and training of the regular troops. CHAPTER IV: ORGANISATI ON OF LAND FORCES IN OPERATIONS Brave men, giving up their lives in good battles, reach in one moment even beyond those (worlds), which Brahmins, desirous of heaven, reach by a large number of sacrifices, by penance and by many gifts to worthy persons- Kautilya 43. Kauilya gives an exhaustive description of how to arrange the land forces for a set piece of battle, starting with positioning various kinds of forces at various echelons of battle field after giving due considerations to planning parameters. War fighting as propounded by Kautilya has an uncanny resemblance to the methodology in practice today. He was a believer of a strong central force along with two wings which can manoeuvre and the importance of reserves. He is perhaps one of the first thinkers to suggest a tactical grouping of forces with a clear cut commander. This helped in easier organisation of the forces as well as downsizing the army when not in need. Tactical Grouping. 44. Grouping of arms for battle at the lowest level has been practised in ancient India since epic times. Kautilya suggested a standard form of grouping of all arms, for the first time ever. The suggested groups corresponds to a remarkable degree with the current practice in modern armies adopted well after WW II . The lowest grouping was at platoon level, a group now referred to as combat team. Because of this remarkable similarity, the modern designations of combat team, combat group and combat command.[12] Each horse was supported by six foot soldiers three of which were archers (Pratiyodhas) and the remaining three were armed with a sword, spear and a shield (Pratigopas) Initially the archers were placed in front so that they could exploit the range of their weapons and as the battle came to close contact, they would recede and the pratigopas would come in front. 45. Patti. Each elephant or a chariot enjoyed the support of five horse groups. This entire group including an elephant / chariot, five horses, 15 Pratiyodhas and 15 Pratigopas formed the lowest tactically grouped sub unit called the Patti. The patti was commanded by a Pattika. 46. Sena. Consisted of ten patties and was commanded by a Senapati or a battle group under a battalion/regimental commander and ten or less senas formed a brigade commanded by a Nayaka. 47. Intervals .There are two sets of intervals or gaps between the files and ranks laid down by Kautilya, one is a narrow gap with the proviso to increase it by double or three times and the other is a larger gap between archers which extends to other arms. It is possible that smaller gaps are for forming up on ceremonial and drill purposes (close order) were archers do not need extended space and larger intervals (open order) for battle information. In a battle formation adopted in an open order the minimum gap between two files of archers was one dhanu(bow) of five hastas(forearm) or 2.5 mtrs, between horses it was three dhanu(7.5 mtrs) and between elephants or Chariots it was five dhanus(12.5 mtrs). The interval between the centre and a wing as well as a wing and its flank was also 12.5 mtr. Kautilya does not indicate the gap to be maintained between ranks but it may safely be assumed that the interval between sub ranks,ie. Within a rank of elephant or chariots, i.e between a sub rank of patiyodhas and a horse would be three dhanus and between ranks, i.e the rare sub rank or padagopas of the front rank and the front sub rank of patiyodhas of the second or centre rank would be five dhanus(12.5 mtrs). These intervals could be increased in accordance with the ground available for battle and the size of the force to be deployed. 48. Reserves. Reserves held an important place in the battle formations as per Kautilya, reserves were directly involved in shaping of the battle field and were placed directly under the control of the king. A firm base was to be established on a suitable terrain approximately 600 -700 m behind the army and it was here that the reserves were placed. The reserve consisted of about one third of the best available troops. The king was advised to be stationed at this firm base after the actual fighting commenced and be in a position to influence the battle by sending reinforcement when and where needed and to make the firm base as a rallying point in case of a reverse.[13] 49. Standard battle formation (vyuha). A standard brigade group was formed for battle is referred to as a standard battle formation or array. Additions and alterations were made to it, according to a formula, in order to accommodate additional troops available for deployment. The standard brigade group deployed five senas each which contained nine to ten pattis; total troops deployed were: (a) Elephants or Chariots : 45 (b) Horses : 225 (c) Patiyodhas(archers) : 675 (d) Padagopas(foot soldiers) : 675 This force of five senas formed up in five groups i.e centre (urasysa) in middle, the right wing (kaksa) and the left wing (kaksa) after an interval of 12.5 mtrs on both sides and after another similar interval the right flank and the left flank (paksa). Each of these groups or senas formed up for battle in three ranks of three elephants each (three patti). Each elephant had three horse groups in front and two behind it with standard deployment as illustrated earlier. Thus making a total of 27 archers a head of each sena. The archers could effectively utilise their long range capability before close contact was made with the enemy and the change over placed them with the spearmen behind the horses, just prior to the two sides engaged in close combat. However in such a deployment the interval between elephants was at around nine dhanus or 22 mtrs which is tactically unsound and out of supporting range of neighbouring elephants , in any case Kautilya places the suitable gap between ele phants at 12.5 mtrs. The only solution seems to be to for France and US: Employment and HR Strategies Comparison France and US: Employment and HR Strategies Comparison Nowadays any international firm worldwide is seeking for global completion in order to expand their activities overseas, and many organizations want to open subsidiaries to reach the competitive advantage, and the organization cannot build a good and affective working team without HRM, which includes recruiting skilful employees, dealing with HR problem, motivating workforce. So in this assignment Ive decided to talk about two of the leading countries in the world, USA and France, since theyre the top of the range in the worlds economy. Each country has a different and successful style to run their economy as well as the worlds economy and acquired an order winner. In this report Im going to include employment systems and HR strategies, policies and practices of this two countries (the common points and what differs them from each other) http://www.humanresourceexcellence.com/importance-of-human-resource-management/ http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=121722 Outline: https://www.oecd.org/france/Employment-Outlook-France-EN.pdf A brief history of HRM: Back in 1880s, the personnel became for the first time important in business, and has been accepted by many organizations, especially after the world war. After in 1940s the personnel became important and has a role in management. 20 years later the name of personnel in USA changed to human recourse management. This name was included worldwide and became more important in firms furthermore it acquired added values (ex. Education, organizational behaviorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦etc). Later on several laws came in regarding HR policies and discrimination within the companies (age, gender, nationality à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦etc), in addition insurances came in (health, accidents à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ etc). So HRM main mission was to deal with those laws as well as workforce and help managers that they worried about losing competitive advantage especially that chinas economy was increasing significally, so as an outcome, worker inclusion arrangements were executed. Employment rate in USA and Market labor: employment rate in USA didnt change to much, well it fell 0.1 percent in only 1 month from 4.8% in January to 4.7% in February, and that was exactly what the experts anticipated, and the number of unemployed people still without improvements with a 7.5 million people. The employment rate average in US is 5.81 from 1948 until 2017 https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf Talking about the workers classes, the unemployment rate in USA is classified by categories for white people, it declines to 4.1%, black people 8.1% and Asian 3.4% in February 2017(see appendix) For those who didnt work for a long time (long-term unemployment) kept almost stable at 18 million people the rate of 23.8%, however mathematically speaking it decreases slightly by 358.000 people, but it didnt change the rate. The employment rate for part time jobs for economic reasons (either lack of full time jobs in specific areas or their hours had been cut back), is 5.7 million in 2017 Nonfarm payroll employment enhanced by 235000 this month, people found jobs in construction, manufacturing, educational services, mining, manufacturing à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦etc. Construction employment has improved by 58 000 in multiple specialties, engineering with an increase of 15 000, and labor forces +36 000, this sector this year has created over 177000 jobs opportunities during this half-year The second place is private educational services that has risen by 29 000 during this month, this year the employment in this sector has enhanced by 105 000 In the manufacturing sector has offered about 28 000 job this month, in food manufacturing about 9000, machinery 7000, this pas 6 month this sector came the third and added 57 000 jobs And other sectors offer job opportunities even if its not with a huge number, still it helps the economy and employment system, like mining that has increased by 8000 during this month. Back to October 2016, this sector has known its lowest level, but in a period of one year, it develops by 20 000 since then. Employment I other sectors like: wholesale trade, transportation, warehousing, finance, hospitality, public sectors and government, didnt change to much that their percentage stayed the same. Employment system and culture in USA Employment system in USA is quite different and flexible, for employees there isnt much stability or warranties in work, in the matter fact workers in general prefer to switch jobs they dont like to stay for a long time in the same organization with the same routine, they like to change and learn more from different places, the average of changing jobs in US is basically every 3 years, employees think more about their own objectives and yearnings than those of the association. And for companies in US like to recruit graduate since they are full of energy and motivated to work, and they know they can perform more and learn easily, as well as graduates like to work for smaller organization to learn and acquire more experience, in addition they can feel that they are responsible, because USA believe in undependability. Another point in USA they have a flexible working atmosphere and more informal, that workers can feel comfortable during work, no dressing codeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦etc. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf Employment rate in France and Market labor: In France people aged between 16 and over are called the active population and theyre about a 29 million, and in the past decade it has enhanced by 1.8 million, and it keeps enhancing, that there are estimation to increase more by 1.6 million individuals by 2025, to reach 30 million by then. In this active population 18% are working part-time jobs, and these time are basically by females, a percentage of 30.2% comparing to males that represent 6.9% only. After the EU, the employment rate for people from 15 to 60 years old is an average of 64.1%, and as long as France still in the EU, they have a rate of 70% behind Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Denmark and Austria. With 1.5 focuses more than in 2013, the rate of businesses who want to enroll no less than one individual over the span of 2014 has achieved 20%, which relates to 450 000 potential selection representatives. While the inclination to select is developing in organizations with at least 50 representatives, it has stagnated among those with 1 to 50 workers. The conditions of labor market in France are improving significally, and after Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (OECD) the employment rate has returned after 6 years when financial crisis started in 2009. Real wage development has stayed subdued, since 2007, raising a few worries of a delayed time of wage stagnation. Recently in 2016 Unemployment rate stayed at the same level however it still in a high level, with a 9.9%, and its expected to decline by the end of 2017. And back in 2009 until now, the distinction in the unemployment rate has broadened altogether, from a 0.3% as a point gap in 2009 toward an estimate 3.6 point slack toward the finish of this year. In addition the employment rate in France is additionally at a 10-year high and is relied upon to increment advance       https://www.oecd.org/france/Employment-Outlook-France-EN.pdf Employment system and culture in USA Recently the most profile demanded in France are the most sought after are occupations are private services to individuals for instance, workers, baby sitters, cleaners, waiters, services for restaurants and cafes as well as hotel workers. In addition organizations too offer various open door for low-skilled individuals like (cleaners, security à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦etc.), or in official posts (RD, IT managersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦etc.) According to (Brunstein, 1995) French companies are often hierarchical and Tayloristic with elitist grandes ecoles' as they follow a strict education management, likewise (Klink, V., Mulder and Lane, 1994-1995), these gentlemen have represented French companies as being founded on ruling system, and control with power gathered at the top. And according to those researchers this tough managerial autonomy is a result of trust absence between the employers and the workers. In French system regarding starting a carrier in a company, and with this luck of trust administrators often appear to be hesitant to concede representatives access to data about the generation procedure and administrative matters, since its an important data is the important for the top hierarchy to keep their power, otherwise theyll put themselves in a danger of losing it. And basically the employees frequently stay at the same position their whole carrier in the same specialization. Not like American system, theyre more strict and formal and they believe in authority and hierarchy. http://hrmpractice.com/hrm-france/ https://ec.europa.eu/eures/main.jsp?catId=2647acro=lmilang=encountryId=FRregionId=FR0nuts2Code=nullnuts3Code=nullregionName=National%20Level references appendix

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